HPV vaccination provides most benefit when given before a person is exposed to any HPV. CDC recommends HPV vaccination at age 11–12 years. HPV vaccination is also recommended through age 26 years for anyone who did not get vaccinated when they were younger.
Vaccination is not recommended for everyone older than age 26 years. HPV vaccination in age range 27-45 years provides minimal benefit because most people have alraedy been exposed to HPV. However, some adults might be at risk for new HPV infection and may benefit from vaccination.
For adults between 27–46 years, clinicians can consider discussing HPV vaccination with few people who are most likely to benefit. HPV vaccination is not discussed with most adults over age 26 years.
Most sexually active adults have already been exposed to HPV , although not necessarily to all of the HPV types prevented by vaccination. At any age, having a new sex partner is a risk factor for getting a HPV infection. People who are in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship are less likely to get a new HPV infection.
HPV vaccination prevents new HPV infections but does not treat existing infections or diseases.
Reference: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination for Adults: Updated Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices | MMWR (cdc.gov).